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The Nepali Security Sector: An Almanac


Bishnu Sapkota



This Almanac contains articles from senior politicians across the major political parties, academics, journalists, human rights defenders and lawyers who have been engaged in public and academic debates and in policy making in the area of security sector reform. The book seeks to contribute to the security sector reform process by offering open source information, data and analysis on all related areas like the military, police, intelligence and the overall role of government. It offers perspectives not only from major political parties but also from the media, human rights and constitutional/legal areas and will thus serve as an important reference data bank for future discussions on the democratic transformation of Nepal’s security sector.

The book is a joint project of DCAF and NPC (The National Peace Campaign). In May 2009, Denmark, Norway, Switzerland and the UK proposed to DCAF and NPC as its local partner, to embark on a comprehensive capacity building programme on behalf of the Constituent Assembly and the Parliament of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. The programme supports the peace process and facilitates a comprehensive parliamentary role in oversight issues, and stakeholder engagement with the security sector of Nepal. The programme seeks to empower parliament and civil society on security sector governance issues in a structured, locally owned process sensitive to Nepali values and customs.

The Almanac studies the structure and orientation of the security sector in Nepal. It aims at contributing towards transparency in the security sector, and greater civilian involvement in the analysis and documentation of security sector institutions and processes.




Philipp H. Fluri and Komal Pokhrel

I. Introduction

a) Background and Summary
Bishnu Sapkota

b) Democratising the Security Sector in Nepal: Lessons Learned and Challenges Ahead
Shiva Hari Dahal

II. The Legislature

1. The Legislature-Parliament
Dinanath Sharma

III. The Executive

2. The Role of the Head of State
Krishna Khanal

3. The Role of the Head of State Administration
Deepak Prakash Bhatta

4. The Role of the National Security Council: An Analysis
Surendra Pandey

5. The Role of the Government
Sayed Mohammed Habibullah

6. State, Government and Security
Sarita Giri

IV. The Security Providers

7. The Nepalese Army
Narahari Acharya

8. The People’s Liberation Army
Ameet Dhakal

9. The Nepal Police and the Armed Police Force
Govinda Thapa

10. Border Security and Management
Laxmanlal Karna

11. The National Intelligence Department (NID)
Kiran Nepal

12. Non-Statutory Forces
Ajaya Bhadra Khanal

13. Private Security Companies
Aayushma KC

V. Security Related Actors

14. The Nepalese Judicial System
Bhimarjun Acharya

15. Justice Systems in Security Organisations of Nepal
Hari Phuyal

16. Criminal Justice System in Nepal
Mandira Sharma

17. National Human Rights Commission
Sushil Pyakurel

VI. Third Parties

18. Involvement of the Civil Society in the Security Sector: Transformation Debate in Nepal
Bishnu Raj Upreti

19. Media and the Security Sector: Shifting Relations
Sudheer Sharma

List of Contributors